history and economics of west africa

The first question entails an indents look at the “Exportability of global markets” where issues such as the relationship between national culture and the film industry are explored. There will also be a description of cultural globalization as a “two- way street” then the focus will shift to certain film genres doing better in some cultures than in others. The second question will explicate a scenario about a South African international motorbike manufacturing company that seeks to import motorbikes Nebulas Sly . GAL. to Nigeria.

This will demonstrate in detail how environmental factors such as economic, cultural, political and demographic environment will affect the Integrated Marketing Communication (MIMIC) for the product to penetrate the Nigerian market. QUESTION 1 1. The relationship between national culture and the film industry Diane Breather-Boucher on her article is quoting Anderson (1983) who sees the role of the media as a prominent social processes through which a shared public conception is created. She notes that films have been seen as an important part of a national culture.

One other salient point from the findings on her study is a narrative by Forgot who argues that both the nation and cinema exist through mechanisms of projection, with each form coming into its full development in the twentieth century. ‘This common nature, as well as their shared chronological ligament, means that, in practical terms, cinema has seen its fate as tightly tied to the substance of nations’ When coming to the South African context, since the advent of democracy the country has had a vibrant, growing film industry that is growing in reputation and is competitive internationally.

South African classic films like Sardinian, Tootsie, the Leon Shutter’s films, Yogi yogi and Copies like Moving, Generations are different genres which have become part of the South African culture and national identity. Local and foreign filmmakers are also taking advantage of the country’s diverse ultras and unique locations as well as low production costs and favorable exchange rate, which make it cheaper to make a movie here than in Europe or the United States to tell our stories to the world. 31 Page 1. 2 Describing cultural globalization as “a two-way street”.

On her research Diane Breather-Boucher concludes by suggesting that the best metaphor would be of cultural globalization as a two-way street, but a two-way street in which different rules of the road apply depending on whether the vehicle (Type of media carrying the culture, e. G films) is traveling to or from the United States. This conclusion as drawn from her earlier findings on comedy which was demonstrated to be traveling on a two way street, but predominantly in one direction, from the major Hollywood studios outward.

Diane Breather-Boucher further quotes If (2006), who suggests that the United States owes its export dominance to three overall pattern of intervening variables which involves sharing a culture and/or heritage with producer countries which means that films from countries like France and England are more likely to be represented in the United States. The Nation’s level of economic development is another pattern mentioned by If and this means that with rater development, there is increasing audience demand for a more diversified sources for film imports.

And one other pattern is also mediated by region, with films of a non-US industry more likely to do well in neighboring nations than elsewhere, This If makes an example of the cartoon comedy Sat©rig and Bob©Liz films which have done very well outside of France in Europe, largely because European audiences are very familiar with the comic book series but have performed poorly in the United States due to the unfamiliarity of the US audience with the characters and also, possibly, a reluctance of distributors to take on alms suggesting political parallels between Imperial Rome and the United States.

Coming to the African continent, one can also conclude that there is also a two- way street because of many African countries having access to internet and a growing but thriving film industry in the continent. Expatriates from Nigeria in South Africa for example, brought along their culture through films and as a results there are even dedicated TV stations and program that broadcast Nigerian films and content which are watched by a huge number of South African. As with the French and US industries, the rules apply differently on the woo-way street between the South African and the Nigerian film industry. 1. Certain film genres doing better in some cultures than in others The numbers on the top US box office films (2006) also appearing on top French box office (2006 or 2007), by genre provided on Diane Breather-Voucher’s research indicates that adventure films and animation are more popular in France than comedy or Drama/Musical. This can be attributed to several factors such as plotting, performance, technical quality, as well as marketing strategies. Other factors such as tie-in to a pre-existing cultural product also plays a role. This can be seen on Hollywood movies which depicts South African stories but features lead American actors.

This has also been seen by some of the major Hollywood studios once closely identified with American 41 Page values and society, joining forces in a variety of ventures with studios like Plywood which according to the article by Diane Breather-Boucher will include the investment of some $500 million by the Indian conglomerate Reliance DAD Group in Steven Spielberg Trademarks, meaning that Spielberg recognized that Drama/Animation is has a huge market and he will tie-in to a pre-existing Indian culture when he produces some of his films.

A country’s culture, religion, language and customs determines the popularity of a certain Hollywood genres in particular countries. Hollywood action movies turn to be more popular in non English speaking countries because they have less vocabulary and more action. American OF movies are about war while OF movies produced by Plywood are about love. Tyler Perry’s movies revolves around Christian values, life lesson, romantic comedy and turn to appeal more to Christian countries , while National Basely National movies are based on Islamic values, contraindicative, romantic ND they turn to appeal and be watched more by Islamic countries.

QUESTION 2 2 ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENTS: According to the business dictionary economic environment is the totality of economic factors such as employment, income, inflation, interest rates, productivity and wealth that influences the buying behavior of consumers and institutions. The Nigerian economic environment is the biggest in Africa. It is also one of the fastest growing and robust economy in the world which will be suitable for selling the Nebulas Sly . GAL. motorbike. 2. 1 Economic infrastructure: According to a study done by economy watch,

Insignia’s economic structure suffers from a lack of infrastructure and poor regulation related to foreign and private investments. To encourage foreign direct investment in foreign direct investments, the country has aligned trade tariffs with the Economic Community of West African States (COCOAS) standards. Prior to 2005, trade tariffs were the second largest source of revenue for the country and this will give Karmic International Motors an advantage to migrate its motorbike business to Nigeria. 2. Standard of living: Still, for 80 percent of the Nigerian population, the cost of living is around USED 1 per day. And there is also a deteriorating infrastructure. Although there is a small but growing middle-class in Nigeria there remains a glaring absence of a middle class. The rich are filthy rich and the poor are dismally, irrevocably poor. Hence Karmic International Motors needs to consider these disparities for pricing. 2. 3 Economic infrastructure: Among its African peers, Nigeria has relatively advanced power, road, rail, and CIT networks that cover the national territory quite extensively.

In the transport sector, Insignia’s road networks are in poor condition from lack of maintenance, and the country has a poor record on air rainspout safety which means that when Karmic International Motors should expert logistical challenges especially when transporting the motorbikes from the assembly plant to the show rooms. 51 Page 2. 4 Per capita income: According to the World Bank national accounts data, and COED National Accounts data files, the latest value for GAP per capita (current CSS$) in Nigeria was $1,501. 2 as of 2011. Over the past 51 years, the value for this indicator has fluctuated between $1 ,501. 72 in 2011 and $91. 37 in 1960. This will affect the profit margins of Karmic International Motors especially taking onto considerations all capital that has to be spent on running the business and looking at the time to make a return on investment. 2. 5 Exchange rate: according to the money converter the latest exchange rates is 1 South African Rand is equals 16. 1683 Nigerian Naira.

This is a good thing because it means all assembling of the motorbike and logistics will be done in Nigeria for a very small amount then transported to other African states at a lower rate. It also means that the motorbike will be marketable since oil prices are low in Nigeria. 3 CULTURAL ENVIRONMENT: is a set of beliefs, practices, customs and behaviors hat are found to be common to everyone that is living within a certain population. Cultural environments shape the way that every person develops, influencing ideologies and personalities [o] 3. Living standard: In Nigerian living in poverty has risen to nearly 61% over the past 5 years. Absolute poverty is measured by those who can afford only the bare essentials. According to WFM Poverty has risen in Nigeria, with almost 100 million people living on less than a $1 a day, despite economic growth. It is a concern for Karmic International Motors besides of doing business in Nigeria, CSS projects that will fit in to the tankard of living must be considered to improve the standard of living. 3. Language Although: English is the official language of Nigeria but Hausa, Your, Gobo are the some of the domino languages in Nigeria. For marketing the bike on different radio stations all of these languages have to be taken into considerations. 3. 3 Lifestyle: Nigerian are outgoing and friendly. Unlike in South Africa, The motorbike is a very popular mode of transport used in different areas of transportation in Nigeria. This is a pulling factor for Karmic International Motors to invest in Nigeria. 3. 4 Values: Extended families are still the norm ND are in fact the backbone of the social system.

Grandparents, cousins, aunts, uncles, sisters, brothers and in-laws all work as a unit through life. Family relationships are guided by hierarchy and seniority. Social standing and recognition is achieved through extended families. These are the values that will be used by Karmic International Motors when they are running marketing campaigns to sell the motorbike. 3. 5 Taboos: Nigeria is a religious country, the northern part of Nigeria is comprised of conservative Muslims while the South has conservative Christians.

Therefore it is taboo to eat in 61 Page public during the month of fasting and this is one of the points that Karakul International Motors needs to put in mind when hiring some of the staff members. 3. 5 Norms and customs: Many Nigerian use gestures when communicating. They may smile to mask their true feelings, especially when disappointed or confused. Many employ indirect eye contact to demonstrate their respect for the other person. It is common to gaze at the forehead or shoulders of someone they do not know well. Very direct eye contact may be interpreted as being intrusive unless there is a longstanding personal relationship.

Members of Taft of Karmic International Motors who will be going to train and work in Nigeria from South Africa needs to be trained on the Norms and customs before departing. 4 DEMOGRAPHIC ENVIRONMENT: According to business dictionary [0] this is the demographic factors of the market in which an organization operates, and which are used to segment the target population for effective marketing. 4. 1 Size of population: 173. 6 million in 2013 and over 250 ethnic groups including Hausa and Fulfill 29%, Your 21%, Gobo (Bib) 18%, Jaw 10%, Kanji 4%, Bobbie 3. %, Tip 2. 5% ,Muslim 50%, Christian 40%, indigenous beliefs 10%. This is a huge arrest for Karmic International Motors. The different demographic dynamics needs to be taken into consideration when setting up the business as well. 4. 2 Education level: The majority of curricula found in the international schools in Nigeria follow British, American or International Baccalaureate standards. The quality of education tends to be high, and students who are children of employees who decides to relocated there need not worry about falling behind during their time abroad.

Furthermore, many of the private schools are equipped with state-of-the-art facilities, and offer a healthy choice of extra-curricular activities. 4. 3 Income level: The income levels are low however there is growing middle-class. The pricing of the motorbike should consider this fact. The Nebulas Sly . GAL. motorbike needs to cater both the middle-class and the lower class. Furthermore this will also be at the advantage of Karmic International Motors when it hires staff from Nigeria. 4. Employment rate: Although there is oil in Nigeria and other thriving sectors like farming by big business, however there is also a thriving small medium business enterprises. It also very much important for Karmic International Motors to note this because they will most of the time not be dealing with people who get monthly income but people who will be paying their installments at any given time in a month. 4. 5 Occupation distribution Incentives looking for work in Nigeria can average as much as 45 percent above basic pay, and range between about USED 100,000 and USED 200,000 per annum.

The average is about USED 123,000 a year, but is often quoted in terms of (approximately) USED 71 Page 400 per day. Very high-level senior management jobs in the oil sector will command higher salaries, sometimes as much as USED 450,000 a year. 5 CONCLUSION This assignment discussed different issues that entailed an in-depth look at the “Exportability of global markets” where issues such as the relationship between national culture and the film industry were explored on the first question.

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