Child abuser should be harshly punished BY artificialities hi my name Is raff. Don’t know what to write. Sorry. The rights of children in saucily arable Children have faced deferent kinds of violence as a power of discipline. Some countries have succeeded to tackle this of problem and ensured children’s rights to live. Corporal punishment or physical punishment is considered as one of the major form of child abuse around the world.. It was estimated by the world health organization (WHO) that around 40 million children between birth and 14 years are suffer from abuse and neglect around the world(library et al. 08). The theoretical definition of corporal punishment is; “The use of physical force with the intention of causing a child to experience pain, but not Injury, for the purpose of correction or control of the child’s behavior “(Straus and Donnelly 2001 recent report has highlighted that 24 countries have put forward legislative ban on physical punishment in the home. As a consequent, positively, it changes in attitudes and behaviors. On the other hand, 192 countries have approved the United Nation (UN) Convention on the rights of the Child (CRY) and are tied to their articles.
The corporal punishment Is not explicit In the CRY, but It Is supposed protect the child from all forms of violence and abuse (Collator and Punk 2010). The present article will mainly focus on the exploration literature about children’s rights in Islamic cultural specifically, Saudi Arabia, and critically appraise the cultural and legal evidence for and against the use of physical punishment. Prevalence of physical punishment among Arab and some other societies It was found that the prevalence of corporal punishment was relatively high among Arab countries.
For example, The Global Initiative (2008) reported that between 2005 and 2006 in Algeria, Iraq, and the Syrian Arab Republic. Around 70% of children experienced mild corporal punishment In the home. Moreover, nearly 15% of the Algerian and Syrian mothers/caregivers believed that children needed to be corporally punished. However, this percentage was slightly higher among the Iraqi mothers/caregivers, with 25% believing that children should be physically punished.
In contrast, in 2002 in New Zealand it was found that only 1% of children reported that they had experienced harsh corporal punishment y their mothers (Woodward and Fergusson, 2002). In addition, Bard and Boringly- Tar”, (20011 reported that 8% of children had experienced harsh corporal punishment. Physical punishment in Saudi Arabia There were several case reports from Saudi Arabia that was published between 1990 and 2000 (AY-Else 1991, AY-Kumara et al. 1993, Satan 1994, Satan et al. 995, AY Eyed et al. 1998, Legendary et al. 1999, Roy et al. 1999, Kernighan, Montana and Fuzz 2000). These cases were Identified by the health care professional as extraordinary problems. These children belonged to the age range of 0-areas and they were resented with a range of injuries such as burns, bruises, fractures, head injuries, and bite marks, etc. In most cases were physically abused by their mother, stepmother, or stepfather, and these cases had discharged to look after by their grandmothers.
The majority mothers were a second wife with a very big age gap between them and their partner. Moreover, no legal action or legal Intervention was occurred except one study, (Legendary et al. That the police In Saudi from their parents, because there is no law enforce against the vulnerable abused children. Medically reported cases were the most severe cases, which had presented the tip of iceberg, the less severe cases stay unnoticeable and not reported. Thus these cases may or may not represent the true burden of the problem in the society.
Students Work: This is a student’s work and is of a lower quality than our custom work Get help with your essay Read more about our Essay Writing Service > Looking for examples of OUR work? Click here to see our Essay Writing Examples > Want to know more about our services? Take a look at our Writing & Marking Service Index > Al- Kina (2005) reported in Share Al-Swat newspaper that two families had installed hidden cameras when they suspected that the maids were abusing their children. Afterwards, they discovered that the maid had been showing minimum concern on child’s need, and had been beating and hitting them.
The cultural impact for and against the corporal punishment Since the objective of this paper, was to discuss the cultural and legal argument for and against the use of physical punishment, I focused on the available evidence in the electronic research engine (Medicine, Pumped, CHINCH, Psychology, and Google scholar). The main focus was on, systematic reviews and good quality reviews or tidies. The research terms were physical punishment or corporal punishment or physical abuse, and children/child, and disciplinary practices, Saudi culture or Islamic culture or Arab countries.
Few studies were found on examining the cultural impact on the use of the corporal or physical punishment (Already and Goodman 2008, Bluetooth et al. 2009, Ex-Lealer et al. 2007). These studies are the most appropriate studies , the first study were from Yemen the neighboring country to Saudi Arabia, and the later studies were conducted in Egypt. Yemen has socio anemographic and cultural environment similar to Saudi Arabia and the main religion is Islam also, 90 % of the Egyptian population are Muslims (Bureau of Near Eastern, 2010 and Foreign & Commonwealth Office, 2009).
Saudi Culture and corporal punishment from my point of view Saudi family consists of three different levels, low income level, middle income level, and the high income. The majority are in the middle income level. The family life style is changing from the extended family to the nuclear family because of the modernization and due to increasing the economic or employment opportunities. As consequence, people tend to prefer living in a nuclear family to large family. However, some people are still living with their extended family members, which consist of grandparents, aunts, uncles, cousins, nephews and nieces.
When I consider is a nuclear family. My mother did not finish her education, but she achieved the high school certificate with lots of efforts. She got married after she finished her intermediate level in school at the age of 16 years, and then she continued her high school with 3 children to look after. As a child, she had experienced family disputes, such as parental fighting… My father is a businessman, who used to travel a lot and have many companies under his responsibility. Thus, he does not have much time to be with us as my mother does.
My mother used to treat me and my elder siblings very harshly. I have; two elder siblings and 4 younger, ones. My mother used to hit us with sticks or pinch until we have bruises around our bodies. Sometimes she put chilies in our mouth when we say bad words. She used to punish us physically as a response to misbehaver and as a disciplinary measure. This punitive behavior was gradually reduced and disappeared with time. I asked her once why you were treating us in such a way. Her answer was “l was young, not educated and no one told her that it was wrong, and my mother encouraged me to do so”.
My mother changed her attitude with the birth of my last two siblings; I have never seen her punishing them physically and have been using alternatives ways of punishments. I assume that is because she has become more mature and wise with time, experience and education. Now, she likes reading books and magazines about how to deal with children and parenting. My experience in Physical punishment at school level was limited. I used to beaten by stick for spilling mistake in one school when I was in the primary level.
Another school we were usually punished by the head teacher on our hands by sticks. Cultural factors in Arab’s families which are facilitating physical punishment of children are similar to other cultures around the world. For example, Al- Marrows highlighted that families’ social circumstances are the most obvious risk factor. Such as, divorced parents, immature mothers or young mothers, polygamy, mothers who marriage early, and gap age between young girls and very old fathers. Poverty is the ext risk factor (AY-Marrows 2007).
Koura-Kissable and Straus (2010) have reported, in a comparative study conducted in Israel between Arab mothers and Jewish mothers, that there were interactions between cultural and socioeconomic status. Two important factors were highlighted: ethnicity and the educational level of the mother, which could explain the disciplinary methods used by the mothers. It used inconsistent parenting styles as a response of their child’s misbehaver. This could be related to social stresses, knowledge and parenting skills. Children could be used by mothers to punish their partners/husbands.
For example second wife mothers, or if there is a wide age gap between parents. In this situation women may feel Jealous about the other wife and try to grab attention by punishing the child. Another issue is that parents could be living in a disharmony which could have a negative impact on the children in many ways including physical abuse of their children. Recently, AY-Barb, (2010) has stated that the reasons why parent abuse their children in Saudi society. He highlighted two main misconceptions in Saudi mentality which regarded to children abuse.
First one is that Fathers in Saudi Arabia have right o do whatever they want because they are supposed to know what is the best for their children. Second misconception is that children must be treated harshly not humanely. On the other hand, there are many noticeable protective factors such as. Extended families which could help in providing support , accessible health care services (Doubting and Bennett 2007). Proposed Method of Critical Appraisal Critical Appraisal To critically examine the evidence provided by this paper, which is cross-sectional study, it is appropriate to use the critical appraisal checklist.
The questions were adapted from Augusta GHZ, Jackets DEL, and Cook DC, Users’ guides to the medical literature. II. How to use an article about therapy or prevention. JAM 1993; 270 (21): 2598-2601 and JAM 1994; 271(1): 59-63 Milton Keynes primary care Trust 2002. Critical Appraisal of (Already and Goodman 2008) The study has addressed a clearly focused issue; to examine the incidence, type of physical punishment in Yemen and to examine the relationship between the harsh corporal punishment and the socio-familial background of the children, the progress of children’s education and mental health.
The authors had used an appropriate method, a cross sectional study. The subjects were recruited in an acceptable way, using systematic random sampling with a reasonable sample size. The sample consisted of 1,196 children between 7 and 10 year olds in 1st to 4th grades of urban and rural schools. Information was collected from Caregivers of “families” and teachers. Mothers were asked to report disciplinary approaches, and teachers were asked to report on school performance. And both were asked to complete the SQ, a brief screening questionnaire for behavioral, for child psychopathology as well.
SQ s the only measure that is known in Yemen and validated. The study has enough participants which are minimize the play of chance. The main results showed that harsh corporal punishment was used by the rural caregivers more than the urban ones. A significant association was demonstrated between harsh physical punishment and poor school performance and behavioral problems. Also there was an association between the socio- familial factors and the use of physical punishment such as large family size, low maternal skills, living in rural area, and male child. Critical Appraisal of (Bluetooth et al. 09) The study addressed a clearly focused issue: to find out what type of disciplinary methods are used by parents, to recognize the different factors associated with corporal punishment, and to examine the relationship between the child’s exposure to corporal punishment and the psychosocial well being of the child. The authors used an appropriate method, a cross sectional survey. The subjects were recruited in an acceptable way, using a representative sample with a reasonable sample size. The sample consisted of 400 children in fifth grade primary school and their mothers.
Information was collected from mothers. Mothers were asked to complete a questionnaire about their behavior on physical punishment and other disciplinary methods. Children’s self esteem was assessed by using the Coppersmith Self- esteem Inventory and were asked to complete a questionnaire about their relationship with others. The study had enough participants, which minimized the risk of chance results. The main results showed that around 75% of the children were physically punished, and over 50% were punished weekly from one or twice a week and to more than once daily.
The following factors were statistically significant: male children corporally punished by mothers (p < 0. 01); the father being of rural origin (p= 0. 02); mothers’ poor rearing experience (p < 0. 01), and a bad relationship between parents (p= 0. 02). There was no significant relationship between corporal punishment of children and their self-esteem. Nonetheless, lower scores were demonstrated in children who were corporally punished on their relationship with others than the children who were not physically punished (Z= 2. 0, p < 0. 05). This study showed that hysical punishment was a common disciplinary method in Egypt. Strengths and limitations This study had some strength: for example, the number of participants in the random sample was big enough to reduce the risk of chance. Also, researchers depended on reports from teachers and caregivers, which reduced the bias in the study. Furthermore, the study was conducted in urban and rural areas, which constitutes a further strength. On the other hand, there were several limitations in this study.
The first limitation was that the study focused on what types of corporal enmeshment were used, but not on the frequency of these techniques. Secondly, the study relied heavily on the mothers’ reports (86%), while other relatives and fathers provided insufficient reports. It would be useful to have information on the variation in harsh punishments given by caregivers. Thirdly, the study did not show the impact of marital violence on the use of harsh physical punishments.
In addition, the validity and reliability of the measures used were unknown in Yemen, except SQ. From Yemeni mothers and teachers. Last but not least, the children’s age range was quite narrow (7-10). The nature of the corporal punishment could vary from older to younger children. Finally, it was not possible to tell if the results of the study could be applied to the whole population. Similarly, the same limitations could apply to the other study. For instance, there were doubts about the accuracy of the data collected from the mothers.
As stated in the study, the sample was a representative sample, but not a random sample allocation, which could have created bias in the study data. The Legal system for and against physical punishment in Saudi Arabia It is important to have an overview bout the legal system in Saudi Arabia which is mainly based on the Islamic “Shari law’. Shari is the Islamic legal framework, which is derived from the holy Quern, the Saunas, the Jam’ and the Ayahs(Allow 2010). Furthermore, Shari law is the prescription of the compulsory penalty which is called a had offence.
For example, flogging is one of the mandatory penalties which are prescribed for a number of offences, or additionally to other punishment by the Judge’s decision (Saudi Arabia, 2010). Despite the fact that many Arab countries have been registered in the CRY and mound in their articles, none of Arab peninsula countries, Saudi Arabia _ Bahrain _ I-JAW _Qatar _ Oman _ Kuwait except Yemen have laws banning corporal or physical punishment. Some Arab countries in Arab peninsula have school policies against physical punishment, but these policies are seemed to be ineffective.
Abused children are usually returned to their biological parents without further legal actions. The Saudi Rabbi’s police insist that under any circumstances, children are not allowed to be taken from their parents, because there is no law which enforce against this problem. In contrast, the laws in Saudi Arabia, derived from Shari, are emphasizing on protecting all children from all types of punishment and violence, and care of them and further highlights the importance of punishing the abuser however, implementation of the said laws and regulations remains questionable (Al- Marrows 2007).
The current Saudi legislation for corporal punishment The physical punishment is prohibited in schools by the Ministry of Education (Arab news, 2003). It is implemented in all levels of general education, and prescribed penalties for the teachers who are treating children harshly. In spite of that the legislation, the prohibition is not explicit. On the other hand, the issue of physical international law in the contest of corporal punishment Many societies have come to the conclusion that violence against children is a problem of rights, not of culture.
High courts in some countries have ruled on corporal punishment in favor of children’s rights, such as Fiji, Israel, Nepal, South Africa, Kenya, India, Italy, Iambi, and Zambia. The international human rights agreement bodies have been consistently against the physical punishment of children. For instance, the Commissioner for Human Rights at the European Council has stated: “how can we expect children to take human rights seriously and to help build a culture of human rights, while we adults not only persist in slapping, spanking, smacking and beating them, but actually defend doing so as being for their own good? (Duran 2008). It has been highlighted by Duran, (2008), that the Committee of the Rights of the Child has rejected religious Justifications for corporal punishment. Moreover, this Committee has stated that religious practices should consistently respect human dignity and integrity. Recently, as far as all forms of corporal punishment are concerned, the Committee on the Rights of the Child in Saudi Arabia has advocated that the State party should conduct legislative measures to ban physical punishment in all settings, including in the family.
Furthermore, this should be supported by carrying out public education campaigns about the negative impact of physical punishment and enhance positive forms of discipline as an alternative to disciplinary practices (Saudi Arabia, 2010). The legal prohibition of physical punishment is increasing around the world as an aspect f human rights. Corporal punishment is banned in over 100 countries in schools, and 23 countries in all settings. The aim of these laws is to provide children with physical security, self – esteem, and safe child rearing.
These countries have stopped corporal punishment because they consider physical punishment as another form of criminal assault. This assault is equivalent to an adult assault. They have made clear statements about the recognition of the children’s rights. These decisions have been made in the child’s interest by prosecutors(Duran 2008). In 1965 in Sweden, more Han half of the population believed in the importance of corporal punishment in child rearing.
This percentage declined in 1994 to 11% of the population, who agreed on the use of the mildest forms of physical punishment. Also, between 1996 and 2006 there was a dramatic decrease in the number of adults who believed that hitting survey in Saudi Arabian schools showed that over half of respondents of reintroducing physical punishment were in favor, while around 38. 5% were against (Arab news, 2003). Recently, (Collator and Pizza 2010) have published a systematic review on bans against corporal punishment.
This study has focused on the legal context in the 24 countries with legislative bans on corporal punishment, and the relationship between the law and changing attitudes. The main results are: one country in the Middle East, 19 countries in Europe, three others in Central or South America, and one in Oceania have legislative bans on physical punishment. These countries have elected or representative types of government. A range of common penalties and threads are presented in the law, such as prison, fines, probation, parental care, community service, or correctional labor.
In terms of attitudes, most studies have shown a dramatic decrease in agreement with corporal punishment following a legislative ban by using historical or geographic comparisons. This study has concluded that the relationship between the law and the decrease in physical punishment remains unclear. Conclusion Physical punishment remains an acceptable method of disciplinary practice in Saudi Arabia. This could be due to the lack of awareness of alternative methods among families, the educational level of the family, and Saudi cultural and traditional norms.
Furthermore, in my opinion, corporal punishment is not associated with the Islamic religion, because the Islamic religion encourages people to treat children humanely, not harshly. To reduce and tackle the issue of physical punishment, awareness raising in society and among the community is necessary at media level. Moreover, the authorities should learn from other societies how they can punish abusive people and deter them.