When people make a decision to have children, the universal plan is for the parents to love and cherish them. However, unluckily this is not always the result. There are adults in this world who abuse children whether they are infants or teenagers. The National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS), maintained by the U. S. Department of Health and Human Services provide information that younger children are more prevalent to child abuse than older children is and that the abusers are the parents or relatives.
I am interested in the topic child abuse because I am a mother of two and the Media reveal so much of child abuse and neglect that people are unaware of how children are to be protected and not neglected. Children are a precursor to adulthood and if we as adults do not protect their innocents then who will? Once a child has been a victim of abuse, they are capable of occurring Social anxiety disorder (SAD).
Although often not diagnosed until many years after the symptom onset, SAD onsets early in life, typically by early adolescence, and thus commonly characterized by chronic associated distress and dysfunction (Depression and Anxiety26:1027-1032(2009),Childhood maltreatment linked to greater symptom severity and poorer quality of life and function in social anxiety disorder NaomiM. Simon,M. D. M. Sc. ,1_ Nannette N. Herlands, B. A. ,1 Elizabeth H. Marks, B. A. ,1 CatherineMancini,M. D. ,2 Andrea Letamendi, M. S. ,3 Zhonghe Li, M. A. ,1 Mark H. Pollack, M. D. ,1 Michael Van Ameringen, M. D. FRCPC,2 and Murray B. Stein, M. D. MPH3. The problem with child abuse and neglect amongst children are that many adults do not realize that neglect is a form of abuse; for example if a parent drop their child to daycare as soon as the daycare open up and waits to pick the child up until it closes is a form of neglect. We can be productive citizens if we can obtain the moment to write letters and articles to legislators to be of support for our communities, we can become more educated to child abuse and neglect rather than continuing letting our children fall victims to abuse.
History/Background of topic. Child Abuse and neglect is a very important topic because every year there are three million cases reported for child abuse and neglect by the states, in which only one in four reports was confirmed(Downs, Susan, Child Welfare and family services: policies and practice-8th ed/Susan Whitelaw Downs, Ernestine Moore, Jean McFadden). The federal child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA) was passed in 1974. The Act established a National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect, which was to be a clearinghouse for the development and transmittal of information on research in child protection (Downs et. al, 2009)..
Child abuse and Neglect is defined by the federal and state laws which refers to “any act or failure to act on part of a parent or caretaker, which results in death, serious physical or emotional harm, sexual abuse or exploitation or an act or failure to act which presents an imminent risk of serious harm”(CAPTA,1974). The National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) give you the numbers and types of abuse. The National Study of the Incidence gives more information on the study of abuse and neglect. These data’s are acknowledged by child protective agencies in each state (Downs et. al, 2009).
Child Neglect is the most common type of maltreatment and surpasses by far the incidence of child abuse (Downs et. al, 2009). The types of abuse are physical, sexual, emotional, mental, and neglect. Younger children are more likely to be maltreated than older children are. The Texas Family Code is a legal document that has a clear-cut definition of child abuse and neglect. Many child abuse and neglect cases are not reported because of family secrets and family roles. People are afraid to report the cases due to lack of clarity, the affects of reporting on family members, and concerns about lawsuits (Downs, et. al, 2009).
In the ethnically diverse society of the United States, differences among cultures in childrearing practices and perceptions of bearable parental conduct complicates the problem of providing clear definitions of child abuse and neglect (Downs, et. al, 2009). A number of cultures perform different religious rituals that may cause bodily harm to one another. On the other hand because of the rituals being perform many cases of child abuse are often ignored. For instance “coin rubbing” amongst Asians, in which the coins are heated up and place on the child’s skin while hot leaving bruises. It is used to cure illnesses and pain; the Asians believe n performing this ritual before going see any doctors. Cases like these are hardly ever reported for the reason that it is known as ritual practices with good intentions (Downs, et. al, 2009).
Every State is required to report child abuse and neglect. Mandatory reporting includes nurses, doctors, therapist, teacher’s professionals and non-professionals. The reporting process is strengthened by publicity campaigns, twenty-four hour hotlines, and administrative linkages between agencies likely to report, such as schools, welfare, and visiting nurses, and legally mandated child protection agency in the community ((Downs, et. l, 2009). Some families do not report child abuse because they believe that they have a right to privacy; but they do not realize that when abuse and neglect is going on the privacy rights are dishonored. Most people that perform child abuse and neglect are family members and relatives so one family member may be in fear of reporting another family member because they believe that their name will be revealed.
According to Child Welfare and Family Services, (Downs et. l, 2009), African American children and Pacific Islander children have particularly high rates; twenty and eighteen per thousand children in the population, respectively are reported for child maltreatment than others. White children are more likely than other races to be reported for sexual abuse. Child maltreatment is a repeating cycle among family members. If you have a child that has been reported for child abuse once a families psychosocial history has been reported then it will be proven that the parents have been abused by their parents.
Abusive and neglectful caregivers often have unsuitable expectations of their children. Because lack of parenting skills and knowledge of child progress, the parents are likely to have unfairly high potential of their children to care for themselves. The parent may believe the child is being stubborn or disobedient and lash out physically on the child. For case in point, a parent may believe that a three-month old infant who keeps on crying after being told to stop, just “won’t mind” and needs a spanking (Downs, et. al, 2009). No particular issue causes child abuse; relatively the relations among nvironmental, parental, and child characteristics creates situations in which child abuse is likely to occur (Downs, et. al, 2009). Such things as Social/Environmental risk factors can cause maltreatment, for case in point community deficits, things like lack of early case-finding techniques, giving inadequate or incomplete services, setting up barriers of communication or bureaucratic procedures that cut off some people from asking for or receiving help(Downs, et. al, 2009). Children that live in poverty are at greater risk for child maltreatment than those not living in poverty.
The parents cannot provide adequate income or personal things for the family and in return, they get frustrated with the out comings and know that children are vulnerable so unfortunately they take it out on the children. Child Protective Services (CPS) have responsibilities for children that are abuse and neglected. CPS is an authoritative agency and has legal rights; they have a social responsibility to families at risk, as children are highly vulnerable. CPS agencies are sanction by the federal and state governments (Downs, et. al, 2009). CPS must maintain a certain level of balance when dealing with authority.
Theoretical perspectives, context analysis and limitations Accepting that there is no excuse for child abuse means accepting the fact that protecting children from neglect and abuse should be highly encouraged among parents and families as well as the community. Social learning theorist, Albert Bandura posits that people learn from one another by way of observation, imitation, and modeling. People learn through observing others behaviors and attitudes. Bandura believes that people can process information to actively influence how the environment controls them (Ashford, J. B. , Leroy, C. W. , & Lortie, K. L. (2006). Human behavior in the social environment: A multidimensional perspective p. 80-81. United States: Brooks/Cole). Social-learning theory is an approach that combines learning principles with cognitive processes, plus the effects of observational learning with behavior (Ashford, J. B. & others). Bandura believes that the kind of social role models children are exposed to; are the social learning methods in which they will occur throughout their life span. With children that are physically abused this is a difficult task to complete.
The children suffer from social anxiety disorders in which when they are suppose to be playing with their peers and learning social learning skills; they are hiding their pain and bruises and suffering from emotional support from their parents and are unable to perform these task comfortable. Parents should always display a safe environment for their children and protect them from harm and danger because according to Bandura perspective, the children will portray what they see and in return, this is how the cycle of abuse continues.
Most social learning skills are learned by age three or four, but children that are abused learn these skills later on in their life because many suffer from maltreatment tremendously. The abused children social learning skills will consist of physical abuse, emotional abuse, mental and or sexual abuse. As Bandura believes either we are rewarded for our actions or we imitated the behaviors that are around us therefore if the victims are not abusers they will go on to be abused which will result in a continuous cycle.
Interventions resting on social learning theory normally contain the intention of stopping existing as well as preventing prospect child maltreatment and neglect by means of teaching both parents along with the children, suitable relationships skills surrounded by the family. Another theoretical perspective that may be beneficial to children that are abused is John Bowlby’s attachment theory. Attachment theory provides a foundation for understanding the importance of relationship in attaining healthy developmental outcomes (Downs, et. al, 2009).
The way a child bonds with their parents or caregiver affects the childs rapport with others. If an environment of abuse and neglect surrounds the child then in return the child will have problems with insecurity attachment with own parents or caregivers. It is also important in developing cognitive ability in children and may even determine the shape and functioning of the brain (Downs, et. al, 2009). Children ensure the protection of adults and if the adults violate the security then children will have feelings of insecurities and lack of trust.
Attachment theory has noticeable and important implications for children and families. It directs our concentration to prevention and early intervention strategies, since attachment begins in infancy and has continuing development repercussions (Downs, et. al, 2009). If communities would have empowerment meetings for families and children reinforcing how important it is to protect the children from abuse and neglect then the rates each year would decline a great deal. With positive reinforcement, for children that have been abuse then secured attachment will occur in which the child can cope with the world and environment.
Conclusion It is exceedingly important for parents, caregivers, the communities and any human being alive to understand that there is no justification for child abuse. Education and awareness about child abuse and neglect nationwide will ensure that children’s innocence will be protected by the ones the love and trust and by the community and environment in which they live. Families that suffer with parental skills should seek help immediately. The earlier a child that has been abused gets help then in progress; the child heals from pain and suffering and will not continue the cycle.